عنوان مقاله [English]
The present study attempts to discuss criticisms of utilitarianism raised by the communitarians in the light of modern spirituality instructions. In this regard, it is aimed to answer the following main research question: What is the foundation of communitarians' critical approach to utilitarianism and what alternative do they offer instead of that? The hypothesis tested in answering to the above question is that the communitarians believe Cartesian epistemology makes hedonist and utilitarian ideas dominant in society and that they present Aristotelian virtue ethics (deontological) as an alternative to resolve the sentimentalist ethical crisis in the modern age and the utilitarian ethics. Although modern spirituality per se is the result of modernity, it basically has a critical and reactive feature and seeks a new enlightenment and spirituality to relieve from the domination and repression of instrumental reason. The communitarians' criticism of utilitarianism is one of the most serious scientific arguments. They believe that putting an end to the sentimentalist crisis in the modern age relying on the outcome-oriented ethics, utilitarianism, and liberalism is not feasible unless by resorting to the ideas of some scholars such as McIntyre, Michael Sandel, Charles Taylor, and Michael Walzer.