عنوان مقاله [English]
The purpose of the present study is to review the relationship between society and government in the constitutional revolution based on Migdal’s theory. In this regard, the following questions are answered: What was the relationship between Iranian society and government in the constitutional revolution? How did intervening paradoxes occur in the constitutional revolution? The method of study is descriptive-analytic and the results showed that based on Migdal’s theory, the Qajar society and government represented a weak state in front of a network of influential and powerful communities. The disagreements began with the amendment to the constitution and divided the scholars into 2 groups of religion-seekers and constitutionalists. In addition to the contradiction between the religious system and the constitutional revolution, 2 other basic factors caused disunity among the clergymen: First, Shi’ite religious institutions were not pivotal back then; second, there had been numerous, mostly political, disagreements among Shi’ite scholars since before which were intensified with the revolution. In the constitutional revolution, each of the political actors adopted contradictory and fragile “survival politics and strategies” through different methods such as opposition and enmity, taking refuge to a sanctuary, religion-seeking, coup detat, killing the constitutionalists, assassination and suppression of opponents, changing the governments, supporting the tyranny of the Qajar and foreign countries, making foreign contracts and so on that could not reach any commonality and consensus. These factors paved the ground for the emergence of nationalist and republican ideas against the constitutional state and law and finally led to the rise of the Rezā Khān dictatorship.