عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
This paper examines a number of the sermons of Nahj ul-Balagha based on the speech act theory. The importance of this paper is analysis of the conduct of the Household of the Prophet(‘a) from a viewpoint which may not be well known enough. According to speech-act theory, speech itself is also a form of behavior and for the realization of the Islamic way of life, this action should be considered too. This article assumes that the speech-act, or verbal communication, is not just an exchange of sentences. When we speak we are also performing an action. Utterances can be classified into the following four categories: phatic utterance, constative utterance, ethical utterance, and performative utterance. Constative utterances are either true or false. However, performative utterances, ethical utterances, and phatic utterances are not true or false. They are either appropriate or inappropriate. If a performative utterance is in compliance with the necessary conditions and rules to carry out an action, it will be appropriate and complete; otherwise, it will be inappropriate and incomplete. First, the article has a literature review concerning: discourse analysis, speech act theory, phatic utterance, constative utterance, ethical utterance, and performative utterance. Furthermore, expositive (or assertive), verdictives (or directives), commisive, behabitives (expressives), exercitive(declaratives) have been clarified. Next, a brief review of some research carried out based on the speech-act theory in religious texts has been presented. Finally, a number of the sermons of Nahj ul-Balagha have been analyzed based on the speech-act theory. As a result, it becomes clear that manifestations of Imam Ali’s(‘a) lifestyle are reflected in his sermons. This article attempts to extract some of these manifestations by applying the Austin's speech-act theory. That which relates this theory to the concept of lifestyle is that according to the speech act theory, verbal communication is not just the exchange of sentences. When we talk we are also doing an action. Therefore, studying the words of the Imam(‘a) in his sermons is actually a study of the actions he has carried out by way of speech.
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